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Macaulay2Doc > rings > monomial orderings > monomial orders for free modules

monomial orders for free modules

In Macaulay2, each free module F = Rs over a ring R has a basis of unit column vectors F0, F1, ..., F(s-1). The monomials of F are the elements m Fi, where m is a monomial of the ring R. In Macaulay2, orders on the monomials of F are used for computing Gröbner bases and syzygies, and also to determine the initial, or lead term of elements of F.

The ring R comes equipped with a total order on the monomials of R. A total order on the monomials of F is called compatible (with the order on R), if m Fi > n Fi (in F) whenever m > n (in R). There are many types of compatible orders, but several stand out: term over position up (the default in Macaulay2), term over position down, position up over term, position down over term, and Schreyer orders.

term over position up: m Fi > n Fj iff m>n or m==n and i>j

term over position down: m Fi > n Fj iff m>n or m==n and i<j

position up over term: m Fi > n Fj iff i>j or i==j and m>n

position down over term: m Fi > n Fj iff i<j or i==j and m>n

Induced monomial orders are another class of important orders on F, see Schreyer orders for their definition and use in Macaulay2.

In Macaulay2, free modules come equipped with a compatible order. The default order is: term over position up. This is called Position=>Up. In the following example, the lead term is a F1, since a > b.

i1 : R = ZZ[a..d];
i2 : F = R^3

      3
o2 = R

o2 : R-module, free
i3 : f = b*F_0 + a*F_1

o3 = | b |
     | a |
     | 0 |

      3
o3 : R
i4 : leadTerm f

o4 = | 0 |
     | a |
     | 0 |

      3
o4 : R
This is the same as giving the monomial order as:
i5 : R = ZZ[a..d, MonomialOrder => {GRevLex => 4, Position => Up}];
i6 : F = R^3

      3
o6 = R

o6 : R-module, free
i7 : leadTerm(a*F_0 + a*F_1)

o7 = | 0 |
     | a |
     | 0 |

      3
o7 : R
Giving Position=>Down instead switches the test above to i < j. In this case the monomial order on F is: m*F_i > n*F_j if m>n or m==n and i<j.
i8 : R = ZZ[a..d, MonomialOrder => {GRevLex => 4, Position => Down}];
i9 : F = R^3

      3
o9 = R

o9 : R-module, free
i10 : leadTerm(a*F_0 + a*F_1)

o10 = | a |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o10 : R
If one gives Position=>Up or Position=>Down earlier, then the position will be taken into account earlier. For example
i11 : R = ZZ[a..d, MonomialOrder => {GRevLex => 2, Position => Down, GRevLex => 2}];
i12 : F = R^3

       3
o12 = R

o12 : R-module, free
i13 : leadTerm(a*F_0 + a*F_1)

o13 = | a |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o13 : R
i14 : leadTerm(b*F_0 + c^4*F_1)

o14 = | b |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o14 : R
i15 : leadTerm(c*F_0 + d^2*F_1)

o15 = | c |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o15 : R
If one wants Position over Term (POT), place the Position element first
i16 : R = ZZ[a..d, MonomialOrder => {Position => Down}];
i17 : F = R^3

       3
o17 = R

o17 : R-module, free
i18 : leadTerm(a*F_0 + a*F_1)

o18 = | a |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o18 : R
i19 : leadTerm(b*F_0 + c^4*F_1)

o19 = | b |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o19 : R
i20 : leadTerm(c*F_0 + d^2*F_1)

o20 = | c |
      | 0 |
      | 0 |

       3
o20 : R

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