# for -- for loops

## Synopsis

• Usage:
for i from m to n when p list x do z
• Inputs:
• Outputs:
• the list of values of the clause x, as described above
• Consequences:
• The numbers m and n must be small integers that fit into a single word. The variable i is initialized to m. As long as i is not greater than n, evaluation of the loop continues. First p is evaluated; as long as the value of p is true, evaluation of the loop continues. Next x is evaluated and its value is saved, and z is evaluated and its value is discarded. Then i is incremented by 1, and the loop repeats. When the value of p is false, then the loop terminates, and the list of values of x is returned as the value of the entire expression.

## Synopsis

• Usage:
for i in v when p list x do z
• Inputs:
• v,
• Consequences:
• The variable i is set to consecutive values of the list v. First p is evaluated. As long as the value of p is true, evaluation of the loop continues. Next x is evaluated, and its value is saved. Then z is evaluated and its value is discarded. Then the loop repeats with the next element of v. When the value of p is false, then the loop terminates, and the list of values of x is returned as the value of the entire expression.

## examples

 ```i1 : for i from 1 to 5 when i < 15 list i^2 do print i 1 2 3 4 5 o1 = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25} o1 : List``` ```i2 : for i from 1 to 5 when i^2 < 15 list i^2 do print i 1 2 3 o2 = {1, 4, 9} o2 : List```

The expressions in this construction may be arbitrarily complicated. Here is an example where z is a sequence of expressions separated by semicolons (see ;).

 ```i3 : for i from 1 to 3 do ( print "The value of i is : "; print i ) The value of i is : 1 The value of i is : 2 The value of i is : 3```

The do z clause may be omitted.

 ```i4 : for i from 1 to 5 when i < 15 list i^2 o4 = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25} o4 : List```

The from m clause may be omitted, in which case i starts with 0.

 ```i5 : for i to 5 when i < 15 list i^2 o5 = {0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25} o5 : List```

The when p clause may be omitted.

 ```i6 : for i to 5 list i^2 o6 = {0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25} o6 : List```

The to n clause may be omitted.

 ```i7 : for i when i < 15 list i^2 o7 = {0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196} o7 : List```

The list x clause may be omitted.

 ```i8 : for i when i^2 < 15 do print i 0 1 2 3```

If continue is executed by x then execution of x is interrupted, no value is added to the list, and iteration of the loop continues.

 ```i9 : for i from 0 when i < 10 list (if odd i then continue; i^2) o9 = {0, 4, 16, 36, 64} o9 : List```

If continue w is executed by x then execution of x is interrupted, the value of w is added to the list, and iteration of the loop continues.

 ```i10 : for i from 0 when i < 10 list (if odd i then continue 4567; i^2) o10 = {0, 4567, 4, 4567, 16, 4567, 36, 4567, 64, 4567} o10 : List```

If break v is executed by x, then the loop is stopped and v is returned as its value.

 ```i11 : for i from 0 when i < 10 list (if i== 5 then break i; i^2) o11 = 5```

If break is executed by x, then the loop is stopped and the list accumulated so far is returned as the value.

 ```i12 : for i from 0 when i < 10 list (if i== 5 then break; i^2) o12 = {0, 1, 4, 9, 16} o12 : List```
 ```i13 : for i in 0..3 list i^2 o13 = {0, 1, 4, 9} o13 : List```

## Caveat

The variable i is a new local variable whose scope includes only the expressions p, x, and z in the body of the loop. Moreover, new local variables defined inside the body of the loop will not be visible outside it.

## For the programmer

The object for is .